The organic memory architecture, based on C60-based organic Thin Film Transistors (TFTs) relies on thin polymer dielectrics sandwiching a floating gate electrode under the transistor channel (instead of a simple gate insulator).
Key to achieving the near-ideal dielectric characteristics required for the Tunnelling Dielectric Layer (TDL) between the channel and the Floating Gate (FG), and for the Blocking Dielectric Layer (BDL) between the floating gate and the Control Gate (CG) was the initiated chemical vapour deposition (iCVD) process used to build up the memory stack, explain the authors.
This solvent-free vapour-phase growth technique for polymers can be applied at low temperature on many different substrates including PET and paper as the researchers demonstrated with their flexible flash memory. The main challenge solved thanks to the use of iCVD was to design dielectric layers thin enough to enable low-voltage programming/erasing while ensuring leak-free insulating properties.
In their design the researchers carefully considered both applied and built-in electric fields across the dielectric layers for each operating condition, choosing poly(1,3,5-trimethyl-1,3,5-trivinyl cyclotrisiloxane) (pV3D3) and poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) (pEGDMA) for the TDL and BDL films respectively. Because the iCVD process yields a conformal polymer growth, it minimizes the risk of forming accidental electrical shorts, it also yields near-ideal dielectric layers with low trap densities, noted the researchers in their paper.
Designed with a 40 nm-thick BDL (pEGDMA) and a 16nm-thick TDL (pV3D3) on a 250μm-thick PET substrate, the flexible memory devices operated with programming/erasing voltages (Vprg and Vers) as low as ±10V comparable to those of conventional Si-based flash memory devices. What's more the devices exhibited reliable programming and erasing behaviours for thousands of cycles, with a retention time estimated to around 10 years (an extrapolated value of the electrical aspects only, added encapsulation would be required for actual long-term testing). Programming and erasing times were as low as 10ms.