New material promises breakthrough for solid state lithium batteries

September 06, 2017 // By Nick Flaherty
Researchers in Poland and Switzerland have found a promising new candidate for a solid-state electrolyte in lithium batteries.

The most popular candidates to replace liquid electrolytes include compounds in which lithium ions are surrounded by sulphur or oxygen ions. However, in the journal Advanced Energy Materials, a Swiss-Polish team of scientists has presented a new class of ionic compounds where the charge carriers are lithium ions moving among amine (NH 2) and tetrahydroborate (BH 4) ions. The experimental part of the research project was carried out at Empa, the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology in Dübendorf, and at the University of Geneva (UG), based on a theory by Prof Zbigniew Lodziana from the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Cracow.

"We were dealing with lithium amide-borohydride, a substance previously regarded as not being too good an ionic conductor," said Prof. Lodziana. "This compound is made by milling two constituents in a ratio of 1 to 3 but to date, nobody had ever tested what happens to ionic conductivity when the proportions between these constituents are changed. We were the first to do so and suddenly it turned out that by reducing the number of NH 2 groups to a certain limit we could significantly improve the conductivity. It increases so much that it becomes comparable to the conductivity of liquid electrolytes,"

The 50x boost in ionic conductivity of the new material opens up a new, unexplored direction in the search for a candidate for a solid-state electrolyte. "Our lithium amide-borohydride is a representative of a promising new class of solid-state electrolyte materials. However, it will be some time before batteries built on such compounds come into use. For example, there should be no chemical reactions between the electrolyte and the electrodes leading to their degradation," he said. 

The compound was used as an electrolyte in a typical Li 4Ti5O12 half-cell which was stable over 400 times. The lithium amide-borohydride exhibited the high ionic conductivity at about 40 °C,