Gallium arsenide is extensively in smartphones and other electronic devices, but typically GaAs nanowires require surface passivation to minimize surface defects and to minimize the rate of non-radiative recombinations. Such passivation adds to the complexity of device fabrication and may be incompatible with other processing steps, explain the researchers in their Nature Communications paper, "Doping-enhanced radiative efficiency enables lasing in unpassivated GaAs nanowires".
Unpassivated GaAs NWs on the other hand, are usually characterized by a very low radiative efficiency and are not considered suitable for optical applications. Here the GaAs NWs were grown by metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy at 575°C, with a low V/III ratio of 1.4. The addition of zinc during the growth process turned the pure wurtzite crystal structure (SEM image d) to a zincblende twining superlattice (TSL) structure (SEM image f).
This doping and crystal structure change increased radiative efficiency without the need for further fabrication steps, combining excellent radiative efficiency with an ultrashort lifetime in the picosecond range.
The unpassivated but zinc-doped GaAs NWs exhibited a radiative efficiency several hundred times better than that of undoped GaAs NWs, while being more than two orders of magnitude brighter, considering that the doped NW is also spectrally broader than its un-doped counterpart.