Battery design: key to improving wearable medical devices

Feature articles |
By eeNews Europe



In similar ways, new technologies which were the reserve of Sci-fi less than ten years ago are currently being developed for both consumer markets and the professional world. What Google has done for the internet, wearable and implantable technologies may well do for medicine.


According to a piece of research published by IMS in 2012, the wearable technology market is expected to reach $6 billion by 2016. IMS defines wearable technologies as products that are worn on the user’s body for an extended period of time, contain advanced circuitry, as well as wireless connectivity, that can process data.


The medical field is one of the leading professional sectors when it comes to investments in research and product design. Portable devices such as nebulisers or infusion pumps and wearable devices like endoscopy recorders or blood pressure and glucose monitors are only a few of the technologies which are now available to the public.


The development of wearable medical devices is aimed at reducing patients’ stays in hospitals and the implied costs. The continuous flow of information provided by wearable patient monitors can also lead to earlier detection of problems and can result in better clinical results.


While the benefits of these devices are obvious, their design has brought to light several technical challenges, one of which is the continuous tug of war between reduced size and weight and suitable battery life. Reliability and safety are other key issues which need to be considered when designing, testing and manufacturing battery powered wearable medical devices.


Battery solutions

An essential component of wearable technologies is the power source which usually comes in the form of a battery. Because the device must be transported on the body of the user and must function continuously, a long battery life is essential. The battery must be as small and light as possible, so as not to impede the user’s daily activities.


Innovative battery design for wearable medical devices is a constant challenge for manufacturers everywhere. The perpetual battle between size and weight on one side, and device runtime on the other, is one of the most daunting tasks that removable and embedded battery designers currently face.


Rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries are an ideal choice for wearable medical devices because of their high volumetric and gravimetric energy density. Simply put, the batteries allow devices to run for longer between charging, with minimal weight and volume. Today’s Lithium-ion batteries have an energy density of approximately 500 Watt-hours per litre and 180 Watt-hours per kilogram and can be judged as the ‘best in class’ for commercially available rechargeable battery technologies.


Fuel gauging

Accurate fuel gauging is vital for all battery powered medical devices. The ability of the device to reliably predict its remaining runtime regardless of temperature, age, or usage profile is essential in order to avoid runtime anxiety. If users cannot trust the runtime prediction, then they may feel the need to carry additional batteries or not leave home for prolonged periods during the time the wearable medical device is operating.


Most single cell batteries in smaller devices use ‘device side’ fuel gauges. A circuit in the host device measures the temperature, voltage and impedance of the battery and uses look-up tables to predict its state of charge. This method is far more accurate than simple voltage based gauges but it’s no substitute for a ‘battery-side’ fuel gauge, which allow the power source to constantly tracks its condition.



Remaining benign throughout its lifetime is of pre-requisite importance for any type of battery. This is of particular concern when the battery powers a device worn close to the human body. Safety standards published by both the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) and UL (Underwriter Laboratories), in addition to battery transportation standards published by the IEC and UN (United Nations), provide a regulated framework for testing. This can be certified by a third party body and used as documented evidence when applying for certification of a complete product.


Safety testing includes altitude simulation, shock, vibration, overcharge, forced discharge, thermal cycling, external short circuit, nail penetration, crush and drop – basically any form of use or abuse that can be expected during the life of the battery.


Boxed in

The golden rule for any designer of portable electronic devices is to involve the battery integrator early in the design process. Drawing on their expertise can help make the final product smaller and less costly than if battery designers are left out of the loop and simply asked to fill a void in the device with a battery.

Unfortunately, the latter is often the case and this can lead to the development of a compromised design in which energy density possibilities are not maximised and costly electrical and mechanical fixes must be put in place to realise the original design expectation.

As an example of this approach, Accutronics recently worked with a medical imaging company to develop a new Lithium polymer smart battery. We were involved from the very first concept sketches, because the new device had to be 50% thinner than the existing model.


Using a collaborative approach we developed and produced a battery measuring just 7.1mm thick but which delivered an excess of 24Wh. The battery became part of the device, providing both power and mechanical strength. If the battery design had been left until the end of the process the whole design would have been compromised.


Embedded or removable?

The current trend in consumer electronics is for a battery to be embedded in a device, meaning they are factory fitted and can only be replaced by trained professionals, not by the users themselves. Embedded batteries are used extensively in tablets, media players and smart phones. However, embedded batteries are not always the perfect solution.


An exhausted embedded battery cannot simply be removed and replaced with a fully charged one. This may be acceptable if the battery is in your media player, but not so convenient if the device is monitoring your vital signs following a major operation. Also, a device containing an embedded battery must be returned to base for a battery replacement, which is time consuming and costly. Because medical devices have a life of up to ten years the battery may need to be replaced five or six times during its life depending on usage.


Removable batteries offer far greater flexibility because they can be easily swapped and a user can carry spare batteries if they need extended runtime. The OEM also has the option to provide additional batteries for extended runtime.


Finally, there is also a third option of fitting a small embedded battery or super capacitor to act as a ‘bridge’, while removable batteries provide the main power source. With this solution the device can run 24/7 if supplied with sufficient charged batteries.



There are literally hundreds of factories manufacturing Lithium-ion cells, some producing hundreds of millions of cells on fully automated production lines in humidity controlled factories. Others produce lower quantities through semi-automatic or manual assembly, in ambient temperature conditions. The quality of product from the latter is rarely acceptable for professional devices due to variations in performance and safety.


When contracting a battery integrator, the original equipment manufacturer should ensure that the cells being used come from a source that has a proven track record of providing reliable and safe products. The OEM has a further responsibility to ensure the battery integrator can provide reliable, auditable paperwork in relation to safety testing at both a cell and battery level, and that no changes will be made to either a diligent evaluation being made.


Failure by the OEM to actively get involved and address these issues with the battery integrator may lead to product performance or safety issues at a later date. This could be extremely damaging to the reputation of the OEM and its products.


Early prognosis

Battery design is rapidly adapting to the development of new technologies, such as wearable and implantable devices. Much like Google who became indispensable to internet users, some of these devices will, once in production, be essential to the day-to-day life and wellbeing of patients.


Many wearable and implantable devices are still at a prototype stage, but the technology is considered essential to the future of healthcare. The key to achieving the best design solution with minimum efforts is for battery design engineers to work alongside device manufacturers from the earliest stages of the project. This will ensure that wearable medical devices, expected to reduce the costs of healthcare, as well as improve or even save peoples’ lives, will become available in the near future.



About the author

Neil Oliver is Technical Marketing Manager at Accutronics – – He can be reached at




/* Style Definitions */
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;


Linked Articles
eeNews Europe