Outlined in a report, the blueprint provides a pathway to ensure the development of the National Quantum Initiative Act, which was signed into law by President Trump in December of 2018. The nationwide effort outlined in the report, says the agency, is designed to bring the United States to the forefront of the global quantum race and usher in a new era of communications.
A system to communicate using quantum mechanics is believed to represent one of the most important technological frontiers of the 21st century, and, says the agency, scientists now believe that the construction of a prototype will be within reach over the next decade. DOE National Laboratories, universities, and industry met in New York City in February to develop the blueprint, laying out the essential research to be accomplished, describing the engineering and design barriers, and setting near-term goals.
“The Department of Energy is proud to play an instrumental role in the development of the national quantum internet,” says U.S. Secretary of Energy Dan Brouillette. “By constructing this new and emerging technology, the United States continues with its commitment to maintain and expand our quantum capabilities.”
The DOE’s 17 National Laboratories will serve as the backbone of the coming quantum internet, which will rely on the laws of quantum mechanics to control and transmit information more securely than ever before. Currently in its initial stages of development, the quantum internet could become a secure communications network and have a profound impact on areas critical to science, industry, and national security.
One of the hallmarks of quantum transmissions is that they are exceedingly difficult to eavesdrop on as information passes between locations, offering the potential for virtually unhackable networks. Early adopters of such networks could include industries such as banking and health services, with applications for national security and aircraft communications. Eventually, says the agency, the use of quantum networking technology in mobile phones could have broad impacts on the lives of individuals around the world.
Scientists are also exploring how the quantum internet could expedite the exchange of vast amounts of data. If the components can be combined and scaled, society may be at the cusp of a breakthrough in data communication, according to the report.
Finally, creating networks of ultra-sensitive quantum sensors could allow engineers to better monitor and predict earthquakes – a long-time and elusive goal – or to search for underground deposits of oil, gas, or minerals. Such sensors could also have applications in health care and imaging.
Steps toward building such an internet are already underway in the Chicago region, which in February saw scientists from DOE’s Argonne National Laboratory in Lemont, Illinois, and the University of Chicago “entangle” photons across a 52-mile “quantum loop” in the Chicago suburbs, successfully establishing one of the longest land-based quantum networks in the nation. That network, says the agency, will soon be connected to DOE’s Fermilab in Batavia, Illinois, establishing a three-node, 80-mile testbed.
Nigel Lockyer, director of Fermilab says, “Decades from now, when we look back to the beginnings of the quantum internet, we’ll be able to say that the original nexus points were here in Chicago—at Fermilab, Argonne, and the University of Chicago. As part of an existing scientific ecosystem, the DOE National Laboratories are in the best position to facilitate this integration.”
Creating a full-fledged prototype of a quantum internet will require intense coordination among U.S. Federal agencies — including DOE, the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the National Institute for Standards and Technology, the National Security Agency, and NASA — along with National Laboratories, academic institutions, and industry. The DOE’s report lays out crucial research objectives, including building and then integrating quantum networking devices, perpetuating and routing quantum information, and correcting errors.
Then, to put the nationwide network into place, the report outlines four key milestones:
- verify secure quantum protocols over existing fiber networks
- send entangled information across campuses or cities
- expand the networks between cities
- and finally, expand between states, using quantum “repeaters” to amplify signals
David Awschalom, Liew Family Professor in Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago’s Pritzker School of Molecular Engineering, senior scientist at Argonne National Laboratory, and director of the Chicago Quantum Exchange says, “The foundation of quantum networks rests on our ability to precisely synthesize and manipulate matter at the atomic scale, including the control of single photons. Our National Laboratories house world-class facilities to image materials with subatomic resolution and state-of-the-art supercomputers to model their behavior. These powerful resources are critical to accelerating progress in quantum information science and engineering, and to leading this rapidly evolving field in collaboration with academic and corporate partners.”
Panagiotis Spentzouris, head of quantum programs at Fermilab adds, “In addition to our collaboration with the University of Chicago, Fermilab is working with Argonne, Caltech, Northwestern University and tech startups to develop the architecture and gradually deploy and connect quantum communication nodes across the city of Chicago. Before long, with this second group of collaborators, we’ll be teleporting data across a metropolitan network. This blueprint is important for telling us how we build this out nationwide.”
Other National Laboratories are also driving advances in quantum networking and related technologies, says the agency. For example, Stony Brook University and Brookhaven National Laboratory, working with the DOE’s Energy Sciences Network headquartered at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have established an 80-mile quantum network testbed and are actively expanding it in New York State and at Oak Ridge and Los Alamos National Laboratories. Other research groups are focused on developing a quantum cryptography system with highly secured information.
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