Incandescent light bulbs at the nanoscale

September 20, 2019 //By Julien Happich
light bulbs
Using tiny arrays of carbon nanotubes, a team of researchers at Rice University has designed nanoscale incandescent light source that could be tuned to precisely emit at specific wavelength, based on the materials’ configuration.


(Illustration by Chloe Doiron/Rice University) Credit:
Chloe Doiron/Rice University

The so-called nanoscale thermal emitters described in a paper titled “Non‐Hermitian Selective Thermal Emitters using Metal–Semiconductor Hybrid Resonators” published in the journal of Advanced Materials combine several known phenomena into a unique system that turns heat into light.

According to the research, the system is highly configurable to deliver light with specific properties and at the desired wavelength. The research is a follow up on a recent technique developed by the lab, using carbon nanotubes to channel heat from mid-infrared radiation to improve the efficiency of solar energy systems.

Here, the unique design configuration turns heat into light, and is highly configurable.

"The previous paper was all about making solar cells more efficient," explained Gururaj Naik, an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at Rice's Brown School of Engineering. "This time, the breakthrough is more in the science than the application. Basically, our goal was to build a nanoscale thermal light source with specific properties, like emitting at a certain wavelength, or emitting extremely bright or new thermal light states.

"Previously, people thought of a light source as just one element and tried to get the best out of it," he said. "But we break the source into many tiny elements. We put sub-elements together in such a fashion that they interact with each other. One element may give brightness; the next element could be tuned to provide wavelength specificity. We share the burden among many small parts”.


An electron microscope image shows an array of thermal
light emitters created by Rice University engineers.
The emitters are able to deliver highly configurable thermal
light. Credit: The Naik Lab/Rice University.

"The idea is to rely upon collective behavior, not just a single element," Naik said. "Breaking the filament into many pieces gives us more degrees of freedom to design the functionality."

The system relies on non-Hermitian physics, a quantum mechanical way to describe "open" systems that dissipate energy—in this case, heat—rather than retain it. In their experiments, Naik and graduate student Chloe Doiron combined two kinds of near-nanoscale passive oscillators that become electromagnetically coupled when heated to about 700ºC. When the metallic oscillator emits thermal light, it triggers the coupled silicon disk to store the light and release it in the desired manner.


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