Researchers in the US have developed a chip that is powered wirelessly and can be surgically implanted to read neural signals and stimulate the brain with both light and electrical current.
A team at the ASSIST Center at North Carolina State University has designed the fully wireless chip with an integrated receiver coil so that it can be implanted. It is also capable of sending and receiving data. The Centre was set up to create self-powered wearables capable of long-term multi-modal sensing without having to replace or charge batteries.
"Our goal was to create a research tool that can be used to help us better understand the behaviour of different regions of the brain, particularly in response to various forms of neural stimulation," says Yaoyao Jia, corresponding author of a paper on the work and an assistant professor of electrical and computer engineering at North Carolina State University. "This tool will help us answer fundamental questions that could then pave the way for advances in addressing neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease."
The new technology has two features that set it apart from the previous state of the art.
First, it is fully wireless. Researchers can power the 5×3 mm2 chip, which has an integrated power receiver coil, by applying an electromagnetic field. For example, in testing the researchers did with lab rats, the electromagnetic field surrounded each
The second feature is that the chip is trimodal, meaning that it can perform three tasks.
Current state-of-the-art neural interface chips of this kind can do two things: they can read neural signals in targeted regions of the brain by detecting electrical changes in those regions; and they can stimulate the brain by introducing a small electrical current into the brain tissue.
The new chip can do both of those things, but it can also shine light onto the brain tissue - a function called optical stimulation. But for optical stimulation